The minimum duration of a rental depends on the type of housing offer. There are housing offers for short or long stay. There is no specific maximum duration. Before signing your lease contract, you have to specify all terms and conditions with the manager or owner of the accommodation.
However, a recent change in the legislation created a new type of lease. The "bail mobilité", or mobility lease, is perfect for non-renewable mid-term stay between 1 to 10 months. It only applies to furnished housing, you don't need to make a deposit and you can leave with a 1 month notice. You can get more informations about this lease on our dedicated article (sorry it's in french but you can try translating it with google trad) or online. It is very convenient for exchange students that only stay 1 semestre or 1 academic year.